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Dette er livets tre. Se hvor liten gruppen "Animals" er. Moralen er å ta seg selv litt mindre høytidelig.

800px-PhylogeneticTree.png

Dette er fylogrammet for vertbrater (for de uinvidde: mennesker og fisk hører til tetrapoder):

fishtaxa.jpg

Dette er et annet illustrativt fylogenetisk tre. Morsomt å tenke på at mennesker tilhører gruppen som amfibiene representerer i dette treet.

Fish_radiation.gif

Dette er et kladogram for de samme gruppene. Her vises kun relativt slektskap mellom gruppene

richardson_fig9.gif

Forventer mange bidrag i denne tråden fremover!

<_<

Edited by Triturus
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Oi! Dette var ein kul tråd som burde appellere til dei fleste her inne.

Her er Chondryichtyes:

chondrich-cladogram.gif

Sygnathidae:

Syngnathidae%20Cladogram.jpg

Sidan det pågår ein tråd om historiske krigsfartøy, så dristar eg meg til å legge ut bilete av eldre modellar av fiskeliknande dyr:

ichthyosaurus.jpg

Rekonstruksjon:

ichthyosaur_reconstruc.gif

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Har man ikke en rett som forumbruker å starte totalt unyttige, nidtriste tråder kanskje? Hæh?

Systematikk og taksonomi er sannsynligvis den delen av biologien er minst kjent for mannen i gata, så det blir nok Chironomus og undertegnedes oppgave å holde liv i denne tråden fremover. Mål om å komme til side 5 før nyttår?

Systematikkfjorden!!!!!!!!!!!!!

EDIT: systematikkfjorden!!!

Edited by Triturus
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Usj, systematikk og nomenklatur er vel bortimot det kjedeligste innen biologien da gutter...

Har selv fortrengt det meste av den lærdommen etter eksamen i fiskesystematikk... Den fordømte professoren dro frem en halvnebb fra middelhavet på eksamen :) Klarte å dra meg noenlunde i land etter å ha mumlet noe om Beloniformes og at det helt sikkert var en Horngjel som hadde knukket en del av øvre nebb :)

Heldigvis hadde jeg roen på favorittgruppa mi Tetraodontiformes og en kjedelig Gadiformes (øyepål)

De gøyeste fiskene er som oftest Stenopterygii!

Edited by ford prefect
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Orden og famile over norske beinfisk.

Actinopterygii (Beinfisk)

Actinopterygii indet. (ubestemte fiskearter)

Anguilliformes (Ålefisk)

Anguillidae

Beloniformes (Horngjel, flygefisk)

Belonidae (Horngjelfamilien)

Clupeiformes (Sildefisk)

Clupeidae (Sildefamilien)

Cypriniformes (Karpefisker)

Cyprinidae (Karpefamilien)

Esociformes (Gjeddefisk)

Esocidae

Gadiformes (Torskefisk)

Gadidae (Torskefamilien)

Gasterosteiformes (Stiklingfisker)

Gasterosteidae (Stingsildfamilien)

Syngnathidae (Nålefiskfamilien)

Lophiiformes (Marulker)

Lophiidae (Breiflabbfamilien)

Osmeriformes (Krøklefisk)

Osmeridae (Krøkler)

Perciformes

Ammodytidae (Silfamilien)

Anarhichadidae (Steinbitfamilien)

Blennidae (Tangkvabber)

Callionymidae (Fløyfiskfamilien)

Carangidae (Taggmakrellfamilien)

Gobiidae (Kutlingfamilien)

Labridae (Leppefiskfamilien)

Mugilidae (Multefamilien)

Percidae (Abborfamilien)

Pholididae (Tangsprellfamilien)

Scombridae (Makrellfamilien)

Serranidae (Havabborfamilien)

Trachinidae (Fjesingfamilien)

Zoarcidae (Ålekvabbefamilien)

Pleuronectiformes (Flyndrefisk)

Bothidae (Varfamilien)

Pleuronectidae (Flyndrefamilien)

Soleidae (Tungefamilien)

Salmoniformes (Laksefisker)

Salmonidae (Laksefamilien)

Scorpaeniformes (Ulkefisker)

Agonidae (Panserulkefamilien)

Cottidae (Ulkefamilien)

Cyclopteridae (Rognkjeks- og ringbukfamilien)

Triglidae (Knurrfamilien)

Siluriformes (Mallefisk)

Ictaluridae (Dvergmallefamilien)

Zeiformes

Zeidae

Håper det er rom for litt annet av interesse også:

fishfigb.jpg

fishgutb.jpg

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Hva er "spiral ventilen" på hann haien til? :)

både hunner og hanner har dette. bare her vist ved hann..

det er en slags spiralstruktur i tarmen som øker overflaten til tarmen betraktelig og senker passeringshastigheten til tarminnholdet (øker tiden tarminnholdet er i tarmen).

er egentlig en innvendig fold av tarmen som har antatt spirallignende form.

viktig med tanke på opptak av næringsstoffer og behandling av tarminnholdet..

mvh

lars-ivar

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Litt mer fra skjelettet.

skullandpect2.jpg

17 Hyomandibula; 18 Symplectic; 19 Quadrate; 20 Pterygoid; 21 Palatine; 22 Endopterygoid (mesopterygoid); 23 Metapterygoid; 24 Preopercule; 25 Opercle; 26 Subopercle; 27 Interopercle; 28 Articular; 29 Angular; 30 Dentary; 31 Maxilla; 32 Premaxilla; 33 Interhyal; 34 Epihyal; 35 Ceratohyal; 36 Basihyal; 37 Glossohyal; 38 Urohyal; 39 Branchiostegals; 49 Preorbital; 50 Suborbital; 51 Nasal; 52 Supratemporal; 53 Post-temporal; 54 Supracleithrum; 55 Cleithrum; 56 Postcleithrum; 57 Hypercoracoid; 58 Hypocoracoid; 60 Actinosts; 61 Pectoral fin; 62 Pelvic girdle; 63 Pelvic (ventral) fin

skeleton2.jpg

64 Abdominal vertebrae; 65 Caudal vertebrae; 66 Centrum; 67 Neurapophysis; 68 Neural spine; 69 Haemapophysis; 70 Haemal spine; 71 Zygapophysis; 72 Parapophysis; 73 Ribs; 74 Epipleurals; 75 Interneural; 76 Dorsal fin; 77 Interhaemal; 78 Anal fin; 79 Hypural; 80 Caudal fin

Edited by avkroken
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Tilbake til topic

jeg kan forstå at enkelte lavpannede skjeler har problemer med språket som brykes i denne tråden. Deror leger jeg ved en lettfattelig ordbok, som greit forklarer ord rtelatert til fiskens anatomi mm

A

Abdomen: belly

Abdominal: pertaining to the belly

Actinosts: a series of bones at the base of the pectoral rays

Acuminate: tapering gradually to a point

Acute: sharp, pointed

Adipose: fleshy or fatty. Often applied to small rayless fins and to eyelids

Adipose fin: a small fleshy fin which lacks fin rays. See adipose.

Adnate: joined together

Adpressed: pressed against the body

Aestivate: to be inactive during warm dry periods

Airbladder: see swimbladder

Alimentary canal: the passage through which food passes, starting at the mouth and ending at the anus

Anal: pertaining to the anus or anal fin

Anal fin: the fin on the median line behind the vent

Anal fin origin: the most anterior point of the anal fin base

Ankylosed: grown firmly together

Anterior: relating to the front portion

Antrose: turned forward

Anus: the external opening of the intestine, the vent

Approximate: placed close together

Asperity: roughness of surface

Asymetrical: without symmetry

Attenuate: tapering to a point, usually in reference to a tail

Axillary: pertaining to the axilla or upper angle of the pectoral fin

Axillary process: an enlarged, pointed scale projecting from the insertion of the pectoral or pelvic fin.)

B

Barbel: an elongated fleshy projection, usually about the head

Basal: pertaining to the base, at the base

Base: the part of a projection, (commonly a fin), which is connected to the body

Bathypelagic: living at a depth between 1000 m and 4000 m, but well off the bottom

Benthic: bottom-dwelling, living on the sea bed

Benthopelagic: pertaining to fishes that swim just above the seabed at depths below about 200 m (the edge of the continental shelf)

Bicuspid: having two cusps or points

Bifid: cleft in two

Bifurcate: forked, or divided into two parts or branches

Branchial: pertaining to the gills

Branchial aperture: the gill opening

Branchiostegals, Branchiostegal ray(s): bony rays supporting the gill membranes behind the lower jaw

Bristle: a stiff hair-like projection

Buckler: a bony shield

Bycatch: species other than the target species that are caught incidentally in a trawl

C

Canines: conical teeth which are longer than other teeth

Caniniform: shaped like a canine tooth, conical in form

Carapace: a horny or bony covering encasing the body

Carinate: keeled, having a ridge along the middle line

Cartilage, Cartilaginous: gristle, gristly

Caruncle: a fleshy outgrowth

Caudal: pertaining to the tail

Caudal fin: the tail fin

Caudal peduncle: the region of the body between the end of the anal fin and the base of the caudal fin

Ciliated: fringed with eyelash-like projections

Cirri: small, thin appendages, often subdivided into branches.

Cirrus: singular of cirri (see above)

Claspers: the external reproductive organs of male sharks, rays and chimaeras

Coalesced: grown together

Compressed: flattened laterally

Confluent: joined together

Conical: cone shaped, with a cylindrical base and a pointed tip

Corselet: a scaly covering behind the pectorals of some fishes

Continental shelf: the region of the seabed extending from the coast down to a depth of around 200 m

Continental slope: the region of the seabed that slopes down from a depth of around 200 m (the edge of the continental shelf) to around 2000 m

Countershading: body colouration which is dark above and lighter below

Cranium, Cranial: the skull, pertaining to the skull

Crenulate: having the edge slightly scalloped

Cusp a point or projection on a tooth

Cutaneous: pertaining to the skin

Ctenoid: rough-edged

Cycloid: smooth-edged

D

Deciduous: temporary, falling off

Demersal: living on or near the sea bed

Dendritic: resembling a tree or shrub

Denature: the "unfolding" of a protein resulting in a lessening of its biological properties. In the case of some fish toxins, denaturing with hot water can lessen painful symptoms.

Dentate: with tooth-like projections

Denticle, denticulate: a little tooth, having an edge with small projecting teeth, the placoid scales of cartilaginous fishes

Depressed: flattened from top to bottom

Dermal: pertaining to the skin

Dewlap: a fold of loose skin

Disc: the flattened head and body of various fishes such as stingrays, which also commonly includes the pectoral and ventral fins

Distal: remote from the point of attachment

Dorsal: pertaining to the back

Dorsum: the upper (dorsal) surface of the head or body

Dorsal fin: the fin on a fish's back

Dorsal fin origin: the most anterior point of the dorsal fin base

E

Elasmobranchs: cartilaginous fishes - sharks, rays and allies

Electrocyte: a cell that generates electricity

Elongate: extended, drawn out

Emarginate: with the margin slightly hollowed

Endemic: restricted to a particular region, for example endemic to Australia

Entire: with a smooth margin

Epibenthic: referring to organisms living on the bottom surface

Epipelagic: referring to organisms living in the region between the surface and 200 m depth

Erectile: capable of being raised or erected, often referring to spines

Esca: the lure or "bait" on the end of the illicium of some anglerfishes and relatives

Estuarine: living in estuaries

Etymology: The study of word origins and derivation.

F

Falcate: scythe-shaped, long, narrow, and curved

Falciform: curved like a scythe

Filament: a slender or thread-like structure

Filiform: thread-like

Fimbriate: fringed at the margin

Finlet: a small fin, positioned behind the dorsal or anal fins, that is supported by a ray or rays

Fluviatile: living in rivers

Fork length: The length of a fish as measured from the tip of the snout to the fork of the caudal fin. Often used for angling species.

Free rear tips (of fins): the posterior tip of the fin that is closest to the most posterior point of the fin base

Frontal ridge: a ridge running along the top of the head along the midline

Furcate: forked

Fusiform: tapering towards both ends

G

Gill arches: the bony arches to which the gills are attached

Gill cover: or bony flap that covers the gills, the operculum

Gill filaments: a series of projections along the posterior edge of the gill arch, the site of gas exchange

Gill membranes: membranes covering the gill openings, attached to the branchiostegals

Gill opening: opening behind each operculum, leading to the gills

Gill rakers: a series of appendages along the anterior edges of the gill arches

Gills, Branchiae: organs for breathing the air contained in water

Glossohyal: the tongue bone

Gonads: the sexual organs which produce eggs or sperm

Gonopodium: a modification of the anal fin of some male fishes, that is used to transfer reproductive products to the female

Gravid: Sexually ripe

Gular region: pertaining to the region behind the chin and between the sides of the lower jaw

H

Heart: the large muscle which pumps blood around the circulatory system

Head length: the distance from the tip of the snout (or upper lip) to the most posterior point of the opercular margin

Herbivore: an animal that eats plants

Heterocercal: pertaining to the shape of a tail with a long upper lobe and a shorter lower lobe

Homology: similarity of features based on common evolutionary descent

Hyperostosis: a condition resulting in enlargement of areas of bone.

Hyaline: translucent or transparent

Hypural joint: the joint between the caudal fin and the last of the vertebrae

Hypural plate: the flattened bony plate at the posterior end of the vertebral column, formed from parts of the posterior vertebrae.

I

Ichthyocide: a substance used to kill (and usually collect) fishes

Ichthyoplankton: fish eggs and larvae

Illicium: a "fishing rod-like" appendage on the head, usually a modified dorsal fin spine

Imbricate: overlapping, like the shingles on a roof

Incised: with a notched margin (often referring to fin membranes)

Incisors: the front or cutting teeth

Inferior: pertaining to the lower side (usually of the head)

Interdorsal: between the dorsal fins

Interorbital: the space between the orbits

intromittent organ: a structure to facilitate sperm transfer in some internally fertilizating species

Iris lappet: a fleshy flap or lobe-like structure in the eye, short and rounded, simple or multiply branched.

Isthmus: the fleshy projection of the body separating the gill openings

J

Jugular: pertaining to the throat

Junior synonym: where more than one scientific name has been used to describe a species, all but the oldest name (the senior synonym) are junior synonyms.

Juxtaposed: placed near together

K

Kidneys: organs involved in excretion and regulation of water balance

L

Lanceolate: spear-shaped, gradually tapering toward the extremity

Labial: pertaining to the lips

Labial furrows: shallow grooves around the lips

Labial papillae: small fleshy projections around the lips

Lateral: at or toward the side

Lateral line: a series of muciferous tubes forming a raised line along the side of the body (view 512kb pdf on the X-ray Mag website)

Liver: a digestive and storage organ

Longitudinal series (scales): the number of scale rows above the lateral line from the first pored lateral line scale to the caudal fin base.

Lunate: shaped like a crescent moon, with long upper and lower lobes

M

Mandible: the lower jaw

Maxilla, Maxillary: the upper jaw, or pertaining thereto

Maxillae, Maxillaries: the hindmost bones of the upper jaw; preceded by the premaxillaries

Median, medially: pertaining to the middle

Median fins: fins located on the median line of the fish; the dorsal, anal and caudal fins

Mediolateral: between the middle and the sides

Mesocoracoid: a bone of the pectoral arch or shoulder girdle

Mesopelagic: refers to the region of the open ocean between 200 m and 1000 m in depth

Mesopelagic fishes: fishes that live in the mesopelagic zone

Midwater: the middle stratum of water, well below the surface and well above the seabed. See also mesopelagic.

Midwater fishes: fishes that live in the midwater

Molars: blunt and rounded grinding teeth

Morphology: form and structure of an organism

Muciferous: producing or containing mucous or slime

Myotomes: blocks of lateral trunk muscles

N

Nape: upper surface of the body behind the head and before the dorsal fin

Nasal: pertaining to the nostrils

Nasoral: between the nostrils and mouth

Nictitating membrane: an inner eyelid

Notochord: a rudimentary of embryonic spinal column

Nuchal: pertaining to the nape

O

Obsolete: faintly marked, scarcely evident

Obtuse: blunt

Occipital: pertaining to the posterior part of the skull

Ocellus: an eye-like spot

Ocular: pertaining to the eye

Oesophagus: the gullet

Olfactory organs: the organs used for smelling, commonly beneath the nostrils

Omnivore: an animal with a diet that consists of both plant and animal material

Opercule, operculum: the bony flap that covers the gills

Opercular: pertaining to the operculum

Opercular spine: spine projecting from the operculum (view the fish figure)

Orbit: the eye socket

Origin: the most anterior point of a fin base

Osseus: bony

Osteological: pertaining to bones

Osteology: the study of bones

Ovate: egg-shaped

Oviparous: a species that produces eggs that are hatched outside of the body of the female.

P

Palate: the roof of the mouth

Palatines: the bones on each side of the palate

Papilla (papillae): a small fleshy projection(s)

Papillose: covered with papillae

Pectoral: pertaining to the breast

Pectoral fins: the anterior or uppermost of the paired fins, which correspond to the anterior limbs of the higher vertebrates

Pectoral girdle: the bones to which the pectoral fin is attached

Peduncle: usualy referred to as the caudal peduncle, the region of the body between the end of the anal fin and the base of the caudal fin

Pelagic: living on or in the open seas

Pelvic girdle: the bones to which the ventral fins are attached

Pelvic fins: paired fins behind or below the pectoral fins

Peritoneum: the membrane lining the abdominal cavity

Pharyngeal bones: bones behind the gills in the oesophagus or gullet

Pharyngeal teeth: teeth within the pharynx

Pharynx: the back part of the throat, into which the gill slits open

Photophore: a circular light-producing organ on the surface of a fish

Planktivore: an animal with a diet that consists mainly of plankton

Posterior: towards the hind end of the fish

Postorbital: behind the eye

Precaudal: anterior to the tail portion

Prehensile: adapted for holding, such as the tail of a seahorse

Premaxillaries: two bones forming the front portion of the upper jaw

Preocular spine: spine positioned above and in front of the eye

Preopercle, preoperculum: the bone between the cheek and the gill cover

Preopercular spine: spine projecting from the preopercule (see preopercle) (view the fish figure)

Preorbital: the area under and in front of the eyes

Protractile: capable of extending forward

Protrusible: capable of extending forward, often referring to the jaws of fishes

Proximal: nearest

Pseudobranchiae: small gills developed on the inner side of the gill cover

Pseudoclasper: stiff ossified lobes or prongs in the tip of the intromittent organ

Pterygiophore: an internal cartilage or bone that supports a median fin ray or spine

Pyloric caecae: finger-like pouches connected with the alimentary canal (the gut)

R

Ramus: one branch or one half of the jaw

Ray: a jointed rod which supports a fin

Retrose: turned backward

Rostrum: a projecting snout or beak

Rugose: rough

S

Scalation: pertains to the pattern/arrangement/presence of scales

Scute: any external horny or bony plate

Senior synonym: the oldest name used to describe a species

Serrate: notched like a saw

Setae: bristles or hairs

Sexual dimorphism (sexual dimorphism): differences in physical appearance between the sexes

Soft dorsal: the posterior part of the dorsal fin which is composed of jointed rays

Spatulate: shovel-like; having a broad, flat and rounded shape

Spine: a sharp projecting point; an unjointed support in the anterior portions of the dorsal and anal fins

Spinous, spiniform, spinate: spine-like or composed of spines

Spinous dorsal: the anterior part of the dorsal fin supported by spines

Spiracles: respiratory openings behind the eyes in sharks and rays

Standard length (SL): the length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the posterior extremity of the hypurals, the expanded bones at the end of the backbone that support the caudal fin

Sub- (a prefix): less than, somewhat, not quite, under

Submarginal: almost at the edge

Suborbital: below the eye

Superior: above or on the upper surface

Supracleithrum: the bone forming a connection between the back of the skull and the pectoral girdle

Supralateral: above the side

Supramaxillary: a supplemental bone lying along the upper edge of the maxillary

Supraocular: positioned above the eye

Supraorbital: above the eye

Supraorbital tentacle: a flap or filament of skin positioned above the eye

Suprascapular: a bone uniting the shoulder girdle with the skull

Suture: the line of union of two bones or plates

Symphysis: point of junction of the two sides of the jaw

Symmetrical: similarly arranged on both sides

Synonym: a different word having the same or a similar meaning

Swimbladder: a sac filled with gas, lying beneath the backbone

Symbiosis: used to describe any association between two organisms. From a Greek word meaning 'living together'.

Symphysis: the junction of two bones of body elements, often used to describe the middle point at the front of the jaws

Synonym: one of two or more names that have been used to describe the same species

Systematics: The study of the evolutionary and genetic relationships between organisms.

T

Taxonomy: the science of classifying organisms

Teleost: a large group containing most of the bony fishes

Terminal: at the end

Tessellated: marked with little checks or squares, like tiles

Thoracic: pertaining to the chest

Thorax: the chest region, just behind the head

Total length: the length from the tip of the snout to the tip of the tail

Transverse: crosswise

Trilobate: with three lobes

Tricuspid: with three cusps or points

Truncate: terminating abruptly, as if cut off square

Trunk: the region of a fish between the head and tail, or the last gill slit and vent

Tubercle: a small, usually hard excrescence or lump

Tubiform, Tubuliform: resembling a tube

Type locality: the location from which the type specimen was collected eg Sydney Harbour

U

Undulated: waved

Uniform (as applied to colouration): of one colour

Urogenital papilla: a papilla through which the urinary waste and gametes leave the body

V

Vent: the external opening of the alimentary canal, the anus

Ventral: pertaining to the abdominal or lower surface

Ventral fins: paired fins behind or below the pectoral fins

Vertebrae: the bones of the spinal column

Vertebrate: an animal with a backbone

Vertical fins: fins on the median line of the body; the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins

Vestigial: reduced, or very poorly developed

Villiform teeth: small, slender teeth forming velvety bands

Viviparous: a species that gives birth to live young. The developing embryo is nourished within the body of the female.

Vomer: a bone forming the front part of the roof of the mouth

Vomerine teeth: teeth on the vomer (see above)

X

xanthism (xanthochroism): An unusual colour variety in which the normal colouration of a fish is largely replaced by yellow pigments. View examples of xanthic Luderick and Sea Mullet.

Kanskje en ide for FS og impementere dette inn i ordlista!

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